Goal: Establish the loading rate of trash, debris, floatables and settleables in the receiving waters.
Area: 304.6 Square Miles
Population: 8.4 million people
Baseline trash load: TBD 2020
Links: State Pollution Discharge Permit (PDF) Exit
Under New York City’s 2015 MS4 permit, the city is developing a floatable and settleable trash and debris management program as part of its Stormwater Management Program Plan. The goal is to develop a methodology to determine the loading rate of floatable and settleable trash and debris, including land-based sources, from the MS4 to water bodies listed as impaired, conduct a loading rate study, and adopt strategies to reduce floatable and settleable trash and debris. Additionally, NYC will implement an interim floatable and settleable trash and debris education media campaign to further educate the public on trash and debris control issues.
Goal: 0% trash by 2022
Area: 2, 576 Square Miles
Population: 7 million people
Baseline trash load: ~1.3 – 2.5 million pounds per year
Links: 2009 Municipal Regional Permit (PDF) | 2015 Municipal Regional Permit Exit
In the San Francisco Bay Area, portions of the Bay and most of its tributaries had been 303(d) listed for trash. Rather than establishing individual TMDLs, in 2009 trash provisions were included in the Phase 1 Municipal Regional Stormwater Permit, which covers 76 MS4 permitees. Using land use data, areas were categorized into ‘Low’ ‘Medium’, ‘High’ and ‘Very High’ trash generating areas on the basis of gallons of trash produced (for example, Medium Trash Generation areas produce 5-10 gallons/acre/year). Permitees are required to implement trash controls in all areas, except ‘Low’ trash generating areas, using a combination of trash capture devices and institutional controls.
The permit requires at least 5, 700 acres to be treated by full capture devices. By 2015, over 25, 000 acres were covered by these systems, demonstrating that trash capture can be an effective solution. A unique feature of this permit is a ‘hotspots’ requirement that applies to creek or shoreline areas with the most trash. Each permittee must identify one ‘hotspot’ for every 30, 000 residents, and do at least one cleanup of each hotspot every year. Hotspot cleanups are particularly effective in removing trash from non-point sources such as illegal dumping. In addition, permittees may claim percentage reductions for reducing the sources of trash through measures like street-sweeping.
Goal: 0 % trash by 2030
Area: 164, 000 square miles
Population: 39 million people
Baseline trash load: Unknown
Links: Policy Document | Video Exit
Statewide, 73 water bodies are listed for trash or debris impairments. Based on lessons learned in Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area, California adopted a statewide policy to address trash uniformly in areas without trash TMDLs and/ or permits. The policy establishes a narrative water quality standard for trash that applies to all state waters and requires all stormwater permits to be modified or reissued to include trash provisions. Stormwater permitees, like cities and counties, will create a trash implementation plan to reach zero trash within 10 years of the newly adopted permits, but no later than 2030.
Each plan must address high trash-generating areas such as 1) high-density residential areas (10+ dwelling/acre), 2) industrial and commercially-zoned land, 3) mixed urban, 4) public transit corridors, 5) on- and off- ramps in high trash areas, and 6) rest areas and park-and-rides. The policy will apply to approximately 17, 000 permittees and will require treatment and control of trash for more than 600 square miles. Compliance may be demonstrated through either 1) use of trash capture devices on an entire stormwater system, or 2) some combination of trash capture devices and institutional controls like street sweeping, sufficient to reach reductions equivalent to full capture. The policy also allows local regulators the option to require trash controls for non-point sources of trash, such as heavily used campgrounds, picnic areas, beaches and marinas. This approach is more efficient since it doesn’t require a TMDL for each water body, which can be time consuming and expensive. It does require immediate action for controlling stormwater sources of trash, which are the main transport pathway.
Goal: 0 % trash by 2034
Area: 2, 128 square miles
Population: 1 million people
Baseline trash load: TBD 2017
Links: MS4 Permit (PDF) Exit
In 2012, trash provisions were added to the stormwater permit for the City and County of Honolulu (CCH). The 2012 permit directed CCH to create baseline estimates, a long term and short term reduction plan, and target dates to reach 50% and 100% reduction. The short term and long term plans, which included proposed methods for baseline calculations, were submitted in 2014. The baseline calculations are scheduled to be completed in 2017. The goals are to reach and 50% reduction by 2023 and 100% reduction by 2034.